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Modernizing Medical Countermeasures to Face Evolving Threats


Kaleo Auto-injector

CBNW Magazine

Modernizing Medical Countermeasures to Face Evolving Threats


1 Ellyatt, Holly. “U.S. accuses Russia of using chemical weapons in Ukraine, in breach of global ban”. CNBC, May 2, 2024 https://www.cnbc.com/2024/05/02/russia-accused-of-using-chemical-weapons-in-ukraine-in-breach-of-ban.html. Accessed June 6, 2024

2 Giguere, Tyler. “The history of nerve agents and other chemical weapon attacks” TechLink, January 30, 2019 https://techlinkcenter.org/news/the-history-of-nerve-agents-and-other-chemical-weapon-attacks. Accessed June 6, 2024

3 Wiercinski A. & Jackson J. “Nerve Agents” National Library of Medicine, Updated October 24, 2022 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493158/. Accessed June 6, 2024

4 Pitschmann V. & Hon Z. “Drugs as Chemical Weapons: Past and Perspectives”. National Library of Medicine, 2023 Jan; 11(1): 52 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9866636/. Accessed June 6, 2024

5 United States Government Accountability Office. “Technology Assessment, Chemical Weapons, Status of Forensic Technologies and Challenges to Source Attribution”. September 2023 https://www.gao.gov/assets/870/861287.pdf

6 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons International Cooperation and Assistance Division Assistance and Protection Branch. “Practical Guide for Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Casualties” November 11, 2015 https://www.opcw.org/sites/default/files/documents/2019/05/Full%20version%202019_Medical%20Guide_WEB.pdf

7 Szoldra, Paul. “Exclusive: DHS is considering classifying fentanyl as a ‘weapon of mass destruction’” Task & Purpose, April 15, 2019 https://taskandpurpose.com/news/dhs-fentanyl-wmd/

8 Assistant Secretary of Defense. “Chemical and Biological Defense Program Defense-Wide Justification Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Defense-Wide” Book Volume 4 of 5, May 2021 https://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2022/budget_justification/pdfs/03_RDT_and_E/RDTE_Vol4_CBDP_RDTE_PB22_Justification_Book.pdf